Detection of malnutrition in dialysis patients is important since this is a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Lean body mass (LBM) reflects the somatic protein store and this was measured by creatinine kinetics, anthropometry, and biometric impedance in 210 incident Chinese patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The study was started in the third month of dialysis and the patients were followed for an average of 29 months. We devised three models of survival by combining the three different LBM measures with several nutritional markers and recognized outcome predictors. Follow-up was censored for transplantation or transfer to hemodialysis with an end point of death while on peritoneal dialysis. Statistical correlations were observed among the LBM values determined by all the three methods and these correlated significantly with both left and right hand grip strength but not with nutritional markers. LBM by creatinine kinetics, mean arterial pressure, and the calcium-phosphorus product were significant, independent predictors of death in one survival model. Anthropometry and bioelectric impedance were not significant predictors of death in the other two models. Our study suggests that LBM measured by creatinine kinetics, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance correlates well with the somatic protein store but not with the general nutritional status.