Parental holding and positioning to decrease IV distress in young children: a randomized controlled trial

J Pediatr Nurs. 2007 Dec;22(6):440-7. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2007.04.010.


Young children are generally restrained in supine position for IV starts, a position that creates fear but is presumed necessary. This study randomly assigned children of ages 9 months to 4 years (N = 118) to being held upright by a parent or lying flat on an exam table for their IV procedure. Distress scores as rated by the Procedure Behavior Rating Scale were significantly lower in the upright positioning group (p = .000); parents were more satisfied with the upright position, and the upright position did not significantly alter the number of IV attempts needed. The upright position appears to be an effective way to decrease IV distress in young children.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Attitude of Health Personnel
  • Attitude to Health*
  • Catheterization, Peripheral / adverse effects*
  • Catheterization, Peripheral / nursing
  • Catheterization, Peripheral / psychology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Fear
  • Female
  • Handling, Psychological
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Midwestern United States
  • Nursing Assessment
  • Nursing Evaluation Research
  • Nursing Methodology Research
  • Nursing Staff, Hospital / psychology
  • Parent-Child Relations
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Parents / psychology*
  • Pediatric Nursing
  • Posture*
  • Psychology, Child
  • Restraint, Physical / adverse effects
  • Restraint, Physical / psychology
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Stress, Psychological / diagnosis
  • Stress, Psychological / etiology
  • Stress, Psychological / prevention & control*
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology