A retrospective clinical and immunological survey was conducted in 60 patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. A prospective controlled non-randomized study of the efficacy of long-term IFNgamma treatment was carried out. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.4 years; mean duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. Lung and skin infections were the most frequent manifestations both prior to diagnosis and during follow-up. Aspergillus species was the first cause of infection and of death in our cohort. The mortality rate was 13%. Long term prophylaxis with IFNgamma did not significantly change the rate of total infection per patient-year compared to controls (p=0.07). Our data provide clear evidence that protocols of continuing intensive surveillance and monitoring of compliance with anti-infective regimens may significantly improve the quality of life and long-term survival in patients with CGD. No evidence justifying long-term prophylaxis with IFNgamma was obtained.