The splenic marginal zone is a site of blood flow, and the specialized B cell population that inhabits this compartment has been linked to the capture and follicular delivery of blood-borne antigens. However, the mechanism of this antigen transport has remained unknown. Here we show that marginal zone B cells were not confined to the marginal zone but continuously shuttled between the marginal zone and follicular areas, such that many of the cells visited a follicle every few hours. Migration to the follicle required the chemokine receptor CXCR5, whereas return to the marginal zone was promoted by the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors S1P1 and S1P3. Treatment with an S1P1 antagonist caused displacement of marginal zone B cells from the marginal zone. Marginal zone-follicle shuttling of marginal zone B cells provides an efficient mechanism for systemic antigen capture and delivery to follicular dendritic cells.