The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other secretory compartments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have biochemical functions that closely parallel those described in higher eukaryotic cells, yet the morphology of the yeast organelles is quite distinct. In order to associate ER functions with the corresponding cellular structures, we localized several proteins, each of which is expected to be associated with the ER on the basis of enzymatic activity, biological function, or oligosaccharide content. These marker proteins were visualized by immunofluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy, allowing definition of the S. cerevisiae ER structure, both in intact cells and at the ultrastructural level. Each marker protein was most abundant within the membranes that envelop the nucleus and several were also found in extensions of the ER that frequently juxtapose the plasma membrane. Double-labeling experiments were entirely consistent with the idea that the marker proteins reside within the same compartment. This analysis has permitted, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the ER morphology as yeast cells proceed through their growth and division cycles.