Multiple myeloma oncogene 1/interferon regulatory factor 4 (MUM1/IRF4) is involved in lymphoid cell differentiation, particularly in the production of plasma cells. We examined the immunoreactivity of mouse monoclonal antibody Mum-1p to MUM1/IRF4 and compared it with expression of CD79a and CD20 in 109 plasmacytomas in 107 dogs. Tissues had been fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. One hundred one of 109 (93.5%) tumors were positive for MUM1/IRF4. The staining was nuclear with weak cytoplasmic reaction. Fifty-nine of 105 (56.2%) plasmacytomas were positive for CD79a; only 21 of 108 (19.4%) cases were positive for CD20. MUM1/IRF4 staining was performed on 139 other tumors including B- and T-cell lymphomas, histiocytic proliferations, mast cell tumors, and melanocytic tumors. The only MUM1/IRF4-positive nonplasmacytic tumors were 10 B-cell lymphomas and 1 anaplastic lymphoma. We conclude the following: 1) Antibody Mum-1p is very specific for canine plasmacytomas, 2) antibody Mum-1p is superior in sensitivity and specificity to CD79a and CD20 for the identification of canine plasmacytomas in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, 3) canine lymphomas that express MUM1/IRF4 are few and usually of B-cell origin, 4) other canine leukocytic and melanocytic tumors do not express MUM1/IRF4, and 5) prospective studies are needed to determine whether the expression of MUM1/IRF4, particularly in lymphomas, has prognostic significance.