The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the magnitude of hormonal concentration alterations during a prolonged military field exercise with constant energy intake (EI) is influenced by changes in energy deficit (ED) induced by varying the exercise intensity. Basal serum hormone concentrations were measured in a group of healthy young male volunteers (n = 7) during a 20-day field exercise. During the first week of the exercise, the average ED was 4,000 kcal/day (P-I), in the second week only 450 kcal/day (P-II), and in the last week 1,000 kcal/day (P-III). During the first 5 days of the field exercise, significant increases in cortisol (COR, +32%) and growth hormone (GH, +616%) concentrations were observed, while insulin (INS, -70%), total testosterone (TES, -27%), free testosterone (TES(free), -26%) decreased. However, after these initial responses, COR and GH returned to the pre-exercise level by the beginning of P-II. Also TES and TES(free) recovered to the pre-exercise level by the beginning of P-III, and INS by the end of P-III. The concentration of TES (+29%) increased above the pre-exercise level by the beginning of P-III. Serum thyroxin (T(4)) concentration was significantly lesser (-12%) and urine urea concentration significantly higher (+78%) after the field exercise than before it. Therefore, it can be concluded that the lower levels of ED in the second and third phase (ED <1,000 kcal/day) allowed recovery of hormonal changes observed in the first phase with ED much greater than 1,000 kcal/day.