We report here the development and application of a biosensor-based technology that employs surface plasmon resonance for label-free studies of molecular interactions in real time. The sensor chip interface, comprising a thin layer of gold deposited on a glass support, is derivatized with a flexible hydrophilic polymer to facilitate the attachment of specific ligands to the surface and to increase the dynamic range for surface concentration measurements. The sensor can be used to measure surface concentrations down to 10 pg/mm2. Typical coefficients of variation are from two to five percent. We anticipate that the ability to monitor multi-molecular complexes as they form will greatly contribute to the understanding of biorecognition and the structural basis of molecular function.