The Phase III Aspreva Lupus Management Study (ALMS) will investigate mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy for lupus nephritis (LN). Eligibility criteria include: 12-75 years of age; diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus according to revised American College of Rheumatology criteria; and biopsy-demonstrated LN (Class III-V). Randomized patients will receive open-label induction therapy with MMF or cyclophosphamide in combination with corticosteroids for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint is treatment response [decreased proteinuria and stabilized (within 25% of baseline) or improved serum creatinine level]. Patients achieving response or complete remission (normalization of all parameters) will be rerandomized to double-blind, placebo-controlled maintenance treatment with MMF or azathioprine, both plus corticosteroids. The maintenance phase primary endpoint is time to treatment failure. To detect a 15% rate improvement in the MMF group compared with cyclophosphamide, and to provide 90% power, a total of 358 patients will be required for the induction phase. On the basis of a projected 278 rerandomized patients, the maintenance phase will have 90% power to detect a difference between treatment groups assuming azathioprine and MMF three-year failure rates of 59.5% and 40.7%, respectively. Aspreva Lupus Management Study may provide invaluable comparative data on the efficacy and safety of MMF as LN induction and maintenance therapy.