CGFS-type monothiol glutaredoxins from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 and other evolutionary distant model organisms possess a glutathione-ligated [2Fe-2S] cluster

Biochemistry. 2007 Dec 25;46(51):15018-26. doi: 10.1021/bi7013272. Epub 2007 Nov 29.


When produced in Escherichia coli, the CGFS-type monothiol Grxs from this organism (EcGrx4p) and the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis (SyGrx3p) exist as a dimeric iron-sulfur containing holoprotein or as a monomeric apoprotein in solution. Spectroscopic and site-directed mutagenesis analyses show that the SyGrx3 holoprotein contains a subunit-bridging [2Fe-2S] cluster that is ligated by the catalytic cysteine located in the CGFS motif of each monomer and the cysteines of two molecules of glutathione. The biochemical characterization of several monothiol Grxs from the cyanobacteria Gloeobacter violaceus (GvGrx3p) and Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeGrx3p), the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGrx3p, ScGrx4p, and ScGrx5p), the plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGrx5p), and human (HsGrx5p) indicate that the incorporation of a GSH-ligated [2Fe-2S] center is a common feature of prokaryotic and eukaryotic CGFS-active site monothiol Grxs. In light of these results, the involvement of these enzymes in the sensing of iron and/or the biogenesis and transfer of Fe-S cluster is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amino Acids / genetics
  • Amino Acids / metabolism
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Cysteine / metabolism
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Glutaredoxins / chemistry*
  • Glutaredoxins / classification
  • Glutaredoxins / genetics
  • Glutaredoxins / metabolism*
  • Glutathione / chemistry*
  • Glutathione / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Iron-Sulfur Proteins / chemistry*
  • Iron-Sulfur Proteins / metabolism*
  • Ligands
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Synechocystis / enzymology*
  • Synechocystis / genetics


  • Amino Acids
  • Glutaredoxins
  • Iron-Sulfur Proteins
  • Ligands
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Glutathione
  • Cysteine