The field of international emergency medicine (IEM) has grown rapidly over the past several decades, with a rise in the number of IEM fellowship positions, sustained growth in the international sections of major emergency medicine organizations, and an increase in the range of topics included under its rubric. One of the greatest obstacles to the continued growth of IEM remains the lack of a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. In response to this perceived need, members of the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association IEM Committee, in conjunction with members of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine International Health Interest Group, embarked on the task of creating a recurring review of IEM literature. This article reviews 25 IEM research articles published in 2006. Research articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that included both methodological quality and perceived impact of the research. It is the authors' hope that this annual review will act as a forum for disseminating best practices while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM.