Redirection of the phenylpropanoid pathway to feruloyl malate in Arabidopsis mutants deficient for cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1

Planta. 2008 Apr;227(5):943-56. doi: 10.1007/s00425-007-0669-x. Epub 2007 Nov 29.


Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase 1 (CCR1, gene At1g15950) is the main CCR isoform implied in the constitutive lignification of Arabidopsis thaliana. In this work, we have identified and characterized two new knockout mutants for CCR1. Both have a dwarf phenotype and a delayed senescence. At complete maturity, their inflorescence stems display a 25-35% decreased lignin level, some alterations in lignin structure with a higher frequency of resistant interunit bonds and a higher content in cell wall-bound ferulic esters. Ferulic acid-coniferyl alcohol ether dimers were found for the first time in dicot cell walls and in similar levels in wild-type and mutant plants. The expression of CCR2, a CCR gene usually involved in plant defense, was increased in the mutants and could account for the biosynthesis of lignins in the CCR1-knockout plants. Mutant plantlets have three to four-times less sinapoyl malate (SM) than controls and accumulate some feruloyl malate. The same compositional changes occurred in the rosette leaves of greenhouse-grown plants. By contrast and relative to the control, their stems accumulated unusually high levels of both SM and feruloyl malate as well as more kaempferol glycosides. These findings suggest that, in their hypolignified stems, the mutant plants would avoid the feruloyl-CoA accumulation by its redirection to cell wall-bound ferulate esters, to feruloyl malate and to SM. The formation of feruloyl malate to an extent far exceeding the levels reported so far indicates that ferulic acid is a potential substrate for the enzymes involved in SM biosynthesis and emphasizes the remarkable plasticity of Arabidopsis phenylpropanoid metabolism.

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Coumaric Acids / metabolism
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / radiation effects
  • Lignin / metabolism
  • Malates / metabolism
  • Mutation*
  • Phenotype
  • Phenylpropionates / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Signal Transduction / radiation effects
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Ultraviolet Rays


  • 2-O-sinapoylmalate
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Coumaric Acids
  • Malates
  • Phenylpropionates
  • feruloylmalic acid
  • Lignin
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • cinnamoyl CoA reductase