We demonstrated the genetic polymorphism of aldehyde oxidase (AO) in Donryu strain rats: the ultrarapid metabolizer (UM) with nucleotide mutation of (377G, 2604C) coding for amino acid substitution of (110Gly, 852Val), extensive metabolizer (EM) with (377G/A, 2604C/T) coding for (110Gly/Ser, 852Val/Ala), and poor metabolizer (PM) with (377A, 2604T) coding for (110Ser, 852Ala), respectively. The results suggested that 377G > A and/or 2604C > T should be responsible for the genetic polymorphism. In this study, we constructed an E. coli expression system of four types of AO cDNA including Mut-1 with (377G, 2604T) and Mut-2 with (377A, 2604C) as well as naturally existing nucleotide sequences of UM and PM in order to clarify which one is responsible for the polymorphism. Mut-1 and Mut-2 showed almost the same high and low activity as that of the UM and PM groups, respectively. Thus, the expression study of mutant AO cDNA directly revealed that the nucleotide substitution of 377G > A, but not that of 2604C > T, will play a critical role in the genetic polymorphism of AO in Donryu strain rats. The reason amino acid substitution will cause genetic polymorphism in AO activity was discussed.