Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema among adolescents living in urban and rural areas in different regions of Brazil

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2007 Nov-Dec;35(6):248-53. doi: 10.1157/13112991.


Background: In Brazil, studies evaluating the prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases among children living in rural area compared to urban area are rare. Some authors identified as risk factors for higher prevalence of current wheezing to have a family history of asthma, to have contact with pets, and being student in an urban school. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase 3 has shown higher prevalence of wheezing, nasal symptoms and cutaneous rash in the last 12 months in centers from Northern (N) and Northeastern (NE) regions of Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate if adolescents with similar genetic background, living in a rural area are protected against the development of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic eczema when compared to those living in an urban area in the same region of the country.

Subjects and method: Adolescents (13-14 year-old) living in Caruaru (Pernambuco) and in Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul) were enrolled in this study (2002-2003). The adolescents filled in the ISAAC written questionnaire (WQ), previously translated and validated to the Brazilian culture (30-32). Data obtained were transcribed manually into a database (Epi-Info) supplied by ISAAC's coordinators and were statistically analyzed by the SSPS-12 software.

Results: The prevalence of asthma related symptoms were higher among those adolescents living in the urban centers in comparison to the rural ones. These differences were significant for wheezy ever, wheezy in the last 12 months, asthma ever, and wheezy with exercise in Caruaru and for wheezy ever and asthma ever, in Santa Maria. Comparing urban areas, the prevalence of asthma related symptoms in Caruaru was higher than in Santa Maria, except for wheezy ever and wheezy with exercise. The opposite was observed comparing rural areas: the prevalence of asthma (except for nocturnal cough) was higher in Santa Maria despite lesser severity of symptoms in this city.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Asthma / physiopathology
  • Brazil
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / epidemiology*
  • Dermatitis, Atopic / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Rhinitis / epidemiology*
  • Rhinitis / physiopathology
  • Rural Population
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Urban Population