The Diagnostic Efficacy of Urinary TGF-beta1 and VEGF in Bladder Cancer: Comparison With Voided Urine Cytology

Cancer Biomark. 2007;3(6):275-85. doi: 10.3233/cbm-2007-3601.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of urinary transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in comparison with voided urine cytology in the detection of bladder cancer. This study included 120 patients with bladder cancer, 54 patients with benign urological disorders and 55 healthy volunteers. Urine supernatant was used for estimation of TGF-beta1 and VEGF by ELISA. VEGF was detected by Western blot (WB) analysis in the urine supernatant of randomly selected bladder cancer patients. The urine sediment was used for cytology. There was a statistically significant difference in the median levels of TGF-beta1 (P=0.002) and VEGF (P=0.000) between the control, benign and malignant groups. The concordance rate of VEGF ELISA with VEGF WB was 96.3%. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 70.8% and 90.8% for voided urine cytology, 71.6% and 59.6% for TGF-beta1, and 76.7% and 61.5% for VEGF. The combined use of voided urine cytology with TGF-beta1 and VEGF improved the sensitivity up to 94.9%, although it lowered specificity to 62.0%. There was a significant association between positivity rate of TGF-beta1 and positive urine cytology samples (P=0.023). Median level and positivity rate of VEGF were significantly associated with early stage (I, II) of bladder carcinoma (P=0.01 and 0.025, respectively). Our data indicate that urinary TGF-beta1 and VEGF had higher sensitivities compared to voided urine cytology. Moreover, the combined sensitivity of voided urine cytology with TGF-beta1 and VEGF together was higher than sensitivity of voided urine cytology alone in detection of bladder cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blotting, Western / methods
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / urine*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / urine*
  • Urine / cytology*
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / urine*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A