Tissue microarrays (TMAs) offer the potential to rapidly translate genomics and basic science research findings to practical clinical application. This is particularly true in the field of cancer biomarker research, where TMAs can be used for candidate biomarker validation and association with patient clinical, pathologic, and outcomes parameters. In this review, we examine the effect of TMA use on prostate cancer biomarker research, focusing on the types of TMAs that have been used, and the biomarkers that have been examined. The results demonstrate that TMAs have been very effective in screening candidate biomarkers for subsequent, extended evaluation in large patient populations. In addition, the use of TMAs in multiple biomarker series allows for the statistical analysis of sets of biomarkers as diagnostic or prognostic tests. The processes used here can be applied to any tumor type to improve patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response prediction.