The identification of tumor antigens is essential for the development of anticancer therapeutic vaccines and clinical diagnosis of cancer. SEREX (serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries) has been used to identify such tumor antigens by screening sera of patients with cDNA expression libraries. SEREX-defined antigens provide markers for the diagnosis of cancers. Potential diagnostic values of these SEREX-defined antigens have been evaluated. SEREX is also a powerful method for the development of anticancer therapeutics. The development of anticancer vaccines requires that tumor antigens can elicit antigen-specific antibodies or T lymphocytes. More than 2000 antigens have been discovered by SEREX. Peptides derived from some of these antigens have been evaluated in clinical trials. This review provides information on the application of SEREX for identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) for the development of cancer diagnostics and anticancer therapeutics.