Antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Red Ginseng (RG, steamed and dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, family Araliaceae), major component of which is ginsenoside Rg3, and Bifidodoterium-fermented RG (FRG), major component of which is ginsenoside Rh2, were investigated. Orally administered RG and FRG potently reduced the serum triglyceride levels in corn-oil-induced hypertriglycemidemic mice as well as total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Of the saponin and polysaccharide fractions of RG and FRG, the polysaccharide fraction inhibited postprandial blood glucose elevation of maltose- or starch-loaded mice and reduced the blood triglyceride levels in corn-oil-induced hypertriglycemidemic mice. The saponin fraction and its ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 reduced blood triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The inhibitory effect of FRG and its main constituents against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice were more potent than those of RG. These findings suggest that hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of RG can be enforced by Bifidus fermentation and FRG may improve hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.