Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is an adenosine analog, isolated from Cordyceps militaris, and it has been used as an anticancer and anti-inflammation ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the effects of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on human platelet aggregation, which was induced by thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, and determined the cytosolic free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) (an aggregation-stimulating molecule) and cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) (an aggregation-inhibiting molecule). Cordycepin inhibited thapsigargin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, and it clearly reduced the levels of [Ca+]i, which was increased by thapsigargin (1 microM) or U46619 (3 microM). Cordycepin also increased the thapsigargin-reduced cGMP levels. Accordingly, our data demonstrated that cordycepin may have a beneficial effect on platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic diseases through the [Ca2+]i-regulating system such as cGMP.