Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a potent rat mast cell chemoattractant

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007 Nov;27(11):911-9. doi: 10.1089/jir.2006.0158.


It is well known that mast cell number increases in local tissues under different pathophysiologic conditions, although the humoral factors that stimulate local mast cell accumulation within tissues are not yet well known. Taking into account that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) influences tissue mast cell activity in various ways, the aim of the present study was to investigate the chemotactic activity of TNF for rat peritoneal mast cells. We have found that TNF induces mast cell migratory response in a dose-dependent manner, even in the absence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Significant migration was observed at concentrations of TNF as low as approximately 3 fM; higher TNF concentrations caused significant inhibition of spontaneous mast cell migration. In the presence of ECM proteins, TNF induced migration of mast cells in a biphasic manner, with peaks of migration occurring at approximately 0.3 fM and approximately 60 pM (in the presence of fibronectin) and at approximately 0.6 fM and approximately 600 pM (in the presence of laminin). Under the same experimental conditions, RANTES induced dose-dependent mast cell migration, and the optimal concentration of this chemokine for maximal migration was approximately 13 nM. The mast cell migratory response to lower concentrations of TNF was chemotactic and to higher TNF concentrations was due to chemokinesis. TNF-induced mast cell migration was completely blocked by neutralizing anti-TNF and anti-TNFR1 antibodies. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, significantly abrogated mast cell migration toward TNF. Additionally, we have documented that TNF does not induce degranulation of rat mast cells. Taken together, our results indicate that TNF serves as an extremely potent chemotactic factor for rat mast cells that would cause accumulation of these cells at the site of diverse pathophysiologic conditions accompanied by inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies / immunology
  • Chemokine CCL5 / pharmacology
  • Chemotactic Factors / immunology
  • Chemotactic Factors / pharmacology
  • Chemotactic Factors / physiology*
  • Chemotaxis* / drug effects
  • Female
  • Fibronectins / metabolism
  • Genistein / pharmacology
  • Histamine Release
  • Laminin / metabolism
  • Laminin / pharmacology
  • Mast Cells / immunology
  • Mast Cells / physiology*
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / immunology
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / metabolism*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology*


  • Antibodies
  • Chemokine CCL5
  • Chemotactic Factors
  • Fibronectins
  • Laminin
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Genistein