This paper reviews developments in statistical modelling in epidemiology in the 1980's, with emphasis on cohort and case-control studies. The central roles of the logistic and proportional hazard models are highlighted, and it is shown how these models lead to a deeper understanding of classical designs and methods of analysis as well as to efficient new designs and analytical procedures. The important area of model misspecification is discussed, including the problems of omitted latent structure, mis-modelling of available measurements, missing data and errors in measurements. Various designs motivated by the logistic model are illustrated numerically, and designs based on the proportional hazards model are discussed, as are papers on sample size determination. There are brief introductions to the literature on other topics, including attributable risk, disease clustering, family studies and genetics, analysis of disease incidence data, infectious disease, longitudinal data, screening and miscellaneous related topics in statistics. An extensive bibliography is indexed according to the outline of the paper.