Background: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) are risk factors for albuminuria, the latter in turn can lead to hyperlipidaemia. We used novel statistical analyses to examine how albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD) may influence the effects of other risk factors on coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods: A prospective cohort of 7067 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients without history of CHD enrolled since 1995 were censored on July 30th, 2005. Cox proportional hazard regression with restricted cubic spline was used to auto-select predictors. Hazard ratio plots were used to examine the risk of CHD. Based on these plots, non-linear risk factors were categorised and the categorised variables were refitted into various Cox models in a stepwise manner to confirm the findings.
Results: Age, male gender, duration of diabetes, spot urinary albumin: creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate, total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and current smoking status were risk factors of CHD. Linear association between TC and CHD was observed only in patients with albuminuria. Although in general, increased HDL-C was associated with decreased risk of CHD, full-range HDL-C was associated with CHD in an A-shaped manner with a zenith at 1.1 mmol/L. Albuminuria and CKD were the main contributors for the paradoxically positive association between HDL-C and CHD for HDL-C values less than 1.1 mmol/L.
Conclusion: In type 2 diabetes, albuminuria plays a linking role between conventional risk factors and CHD. The onset of CKD changes risk associations between lipids and CHD.