The mortality pattern among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 4,070 men decreased during the period 1950-1987. The subjects were identified from the register of deaths and burials in six parishes. A significantly increased mortality was seen for diabetes mellitus and for secondary tumors of the lung and liver among the pulp and paper mill workers. Indications of excess risks were also found for obstructive lung disorders, pulmonary emboli, accidents, and pneumonia, as well as for malignant lymphomas, leukemias, and cancer of the pancreas and stomach. In the only parish where a sulfite process was exclusively used, cancer of the digestive tract and especially of the rectum was found to be in excess. Except for this parish, the sulfate process predominated in the plants included. The mortality pattern found in this study is in reasonable agreement with findings in various studies from this type of industry.