Propolis, a honeybee product, contains a variety of biologically active substances. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of propolis on insulin resistance induced by fructose-drinking rats (FDR; type 2 diabetic animal model). Male Wistar rats (6 weeks old) received 15% fructose solution in drinking water for 8 weeks. FDR showed significant increases in plasma levels of insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment ratio (HOMA-R, an index of insulin resistance), body weight, and systolic blood pressure but not blood glucose levels, when compared with control rats. Brazilian propolis extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for 8 weeks significantly decreased the plasma level of insulin, HOMA-R, and body weight, increased plasma triglyceride levels without affecting blood glucose and total cholesterol levels, and tended to decrease systolic blood pressure. In isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular beds of FDR, propolis treatment resulted in a significant reduction of sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstrictor response to periarterial nerve stimulation (PNS; 8 Hz) and tended to increase the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) nerve-mediated vasodilator response to PNS, compared with those in untreated FDR. However, propolis treatment did not significantly affect norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction and CGRP-induced vasodilation. These results suggest that propolis could be an effective functional food to prevent the development of insulin resistance.