Diffusion tensor imaging and multiple voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed in the MRI follow-up of a patient with a glioma treated with temozolomide chemotherapy. Tumor shrinkage was paralleled by reductions in choline level and by increases in apparent diffusion coefficient indicating decreased cellularity. Within the tumor, choline level and apparent diffusion coefficient showed a significant inverse correlation (P < 0.01). Fractional anisotropy distribution in the tumor correlated positively with N-acetyl aspartate level (P < 0.001), indicating that these parameters reflect (remaining) axonal structure. Tumor lactate level, also found to decrease under therapy, did not correlate with any other parameter.