The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was used in 111 WHO grades I and II meningioma patients. Clinical, radiological, pathological, and immunohistochemical data were compared to aberrations of chromosomes 1p, 14q, and 22q determined by FISH. Significant differences for MIB-1 labeling were found between grades I and II tumors (p < 0.001), and between grade I tumors that recurred and those that did not recur (p < 0.001). Chromosomal aberrations were detected with FISH analysis in nearly 50% of grade I, and in 93% of grade II meningiomas. The numbers of chromosomal aberrations correlated significantly to MIB-1 (p < 0.001), with signs of grossly invasive tumor growth (p < 0.001), and with tumor recurrence (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that adding FISH analysis may allow better prediction of possible meningioma recurrence and may be a useful adjunct for therapy decisions.