The aim of this work is to describe the diversity and phylogeny of rhizobial bacteria associated to nodules of Ononis tridentata L. in different geographical regions of Spain. Twenty-two bacterial isolates were characterized using several molecular techniques (16S amplified ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid restriction analysis, fingerprinting, and sequencing) and phylogenies were inferred from their 16S and nodC gene sequences. Phylogenetically, the isolates grouped with the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Phylobacterium, and Bosea. The nodC gene, essential for nodulation, was detected for the first time in isolates close to the genera Bosea and Phyllobacterium. The bacteria isolated showed a high diversity at the genus, species, and strain level regardless of the geographical origin of the host plant. This is the first report describing bacteria associated to nodules of O. tridentata. This shrub legume is highly prized for the revegetation of gypsum soils in semiarid Mediterranean areas. Our molecular description of bacteria associated to this legume improves the current understanding of the ecology of this plant species. Our findings have implications for formulating suitable bacterial inocula to recover gypsum ecosystems.