Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 by Sanguis Draconis, a dragon's blood resin, in RAW 264.7 cells

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 12;115(3):455-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.012. Epub 2007 Oct 22.


Sanguis Draconis (SD) is a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemomorops draco (Palmae). It is used in traditional medicine and has shown anti-inflammatory activity in some diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of Sanguis Dranonis ethanol extract (SDEE) on LPS-induced inflammation using RAW 264.7 cells. Our data indicated that SDEE inhibits LPS-stimulated NO, PGE2, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha release, and iNOS and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, SDEE suppressed the LPS-induced p65 expression of NF-kappa B, which was associated with the inhibition of I kappa B-alpha degradation. We also found that the expression of HO-1 was significantly increased in RAW 264.7 cells by SDEE. These results suggest among possibilities of anti-inflammation that SDEE inhibits the production of NO and PGE2 by the down-regulation of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression via the suppression of NF-kappaB (p65) activation. SDEE can induce HO-1 over-expression in macrophage cells, which indicates that it may possess antioxidant properties. This result means that SEDD its anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages may be through a novel mechanism that involves the action of HO-1. Thus, SD could provide a potential therapeutic approach for inflammation-associated disorders.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Arecaceae / chemistry*
  • Cell Line
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / drug effects
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism
  • Dinoprostone / biosynthesis
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 / drug effects
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 / metabolism
  • Inflammation / chemically induced
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Medicine, Traditional
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Resins, Plant


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Resins, Plant
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Heme Oxygenase-1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Dinoprostone