Antidepressants are among the most widely prescribed drugs, however the mechanism underlying their therapeutic efficacy is not known. Neurotrophic factors represent a promising class of targets for antidepressant treatments. We recently characterized a role for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cellular and behavioral antidepressant responses. VEGF is a potent mitogen and survival factor for endothelial cells (ECs) and neurons, and modulator of synaptic transmission. Because VEGF has been implicated in a variety of diseases, understanding the molecular and cellular specificity of antidepressant-induced VEGF will be crucial to determine its potential as a therapeutic target in depression.