We studied the role of host genetics in the susceptibility to severe Salmonella and Campylobacter infections and chronic sequelae of these infections. Participants of a previous case-control study were sent a buccal swab kit and a questionnaire about occurrence of chronic sequelae. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TLR4 (rs4986790), IFNG (rs2430561 and rs1861493), STAT1 (rs1914408), IL1B (rs16944), NRAMP (SLC11A1 rs2276631), JUN (rs11688) and VDR (rs10735810) genes were determined. In total, 687 controls, 457 Campylobacter cases and 193 Salmonella cases participated. None of the SNPs were associated with Campylobacter or Salmonella infections. None of the participants developed Guillain-Barré, Miller-Fisher or Reiter's syndrome. Reactive arthritis occurred in 5% and 2% of cases and controls, respectively. Campylobacter cases more frequently experienced gastroenteritis episodes than controls. Campylobacter or Salmonella infection in women, use of proton pump inhibitors and an SNP in the IFNG gene were independent risk factors for reactive arthritis. Another SNP in the IFNG gene and use of proton pump inhibitors were risk factors for recurrent episodes of gastroenteritis. In conclusion, reactive arthritis and recurrent gastroenteritis episodes are common after infection and host genetic factors play a role in susceptibility to these long-term health effects.