The aim of our work was to develop an assay for the determination of angiopoietin-like protein 3 (Angptl3) in human blood, and investigate its levels in healthy volunteers and donors suffer from metabolic syndrome and familiar hypercholesterolemia. We developed and evaluated the sandwich ELISA method for the quantitative determination of human Angptl3 in serum samples. We conducted also the pilot study on individuals with metabolic syndrome or familiar hypercholesterolemia and healthy probands. The following parameters were measured: blood pressure, waist circumference, Angptl3 serum levels, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, glucose, A-FABP, and BMI and Quicki insulin sensitivity index was calculated. In the study on 93 healthy volunteers we demonstrated that sex or age is not the determinant for Angptl3 serum values. Futhermore, 118 individuals with metabolic syndrome and 200 patients with familiar hypercholesterolemia were tested and it was found that probands with metabolic syndrome or familiar hypercholesterolemia had higher Angptl3 values than healthy individuals from the first study (medians 289.5 vs. 277.1 vs. 224.8 ng/ml, p < 0.01). All of groups did not differ in sex or age. Angptl3 values correlated with the systolic blood pressure, LDL and A-FABP (p < 0.05). No connection of Angptl3 with triglycerides was found (presumably influences of statins, fibrates via PPARs, etc). However, we performed stepwise regression and found A-FABP and Angptl3 serum values as the independent markers for metabolic syndrome presence only (F ratio 29, p < 0.01). Then we adjusted Angptl3 to A-FABP (reputable metabolic syndrome marker) and recognised that Angptl3 is the A-FABP-independent marker. The pilot study supports the hypothesis about the role of Angptl3 as a new class of lipid metabolism modulator. Their values could be a new key predictors of metabolic syndrome. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings in individuals with dyslipidemia, obesity, CAD and different medication in order to assess Angptl3 value as a risk predictor of accelerated atherosclerosis.