No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads

Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1586-94. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1586.


Background: It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity.

Objective: The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink.

Design: The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g).

Results: Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P < 0.001) and ghrelin (P < 0.05) concentrations changed accordingly. Compensatory energy intake did not differ significantly between the 3 preloads and ranged from 30% to 45%. Energy intake compensations were related to satiety (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). No differences were observed between the effects of the sucrose- and HFCS-containing drinks on changes in VAS and on insulin, glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations.

Conclusion: Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cattle
  • Energy Intake / physiology*
  • Female
  • Fructose / administration & dosage*
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Milk / metabolism*
  • Obesity / etiology
  • Satiety Response / physiology*
  • Sucrose / administration & dosage*
  • Taste


  • Blood Glucose
  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Fructose
  • Sucrose
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1