Posttranslational modifications of histones such as methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Here we show that protein-kinase-C-related kinase 1 (PRK1) phosphorylates histone H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) upon ligand-dependent recruitment to androgen receptor target genes. PRK1 is pivotal to androgen receptor function because PRK1 knockdown or inhibition impedes androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Blocking PRK1 function abrogates androgen-induced H3T11 phosphorylation and inhibits androgen-induced demethylation of histone H3. Moreover, serine-5-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II is no longer observed at androgen receptor target promoters. Phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 accelerates demethylation by the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain-containing protein JMJD2C. Thus, phosphorylation of H3T11 by PRK1 establishes a novel chromatin mark for gene activation, identifying PRK1 as a gatekeeper of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Importantly, levels of PRK1 and phosphorylated H3T11 correlate with Gleason scores of prostate carcinomas. Finally, inhibition of PRK1 blocks proliferation of androgen receptor-induced tumour cell proliferation, making PRK1 a promising therapeutic target.