Pleuroperitoneal communication is a complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) that can necessitate cessation of CAPD. Hemodialysis was started on a 52-year-old woman and shifted to CAPD 1 month later. However, 18 days after initiation of CAPD, her chest radiograph showed a right-side hydrothorax. Thoracentesis yielded a colorless pleural effusion with markedly higher glucose levels than in her serum, indicating the presence of pleuroperitoneal communication. Three days later, thoracoscopic surgery was performed. A colored dialysis solution preoperatively injected into the abdominal cavity identified intraoperatively leakage from the diaphragm. The leakage points were closed by a no-knife-type automatic stapler with absorbable polyglycolic acid felt and fibrin glue. CAPD was restarted on the operative day, and there was no recurrence of the right hydrothorax. We conclude that this simple method can be used effectively to treat pleuroperitoneal communication.