Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): implications in Everglades restoration

Environ Pollut. 2008 Jul;154(2):338-47. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2007.09.024. Epub 2008 Feb 20.


Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 microg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Animals
  • Carbon / analysis
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Copper / analysis*
  • Copper / toxicity
  • Disasters*
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Florida
  • Fresh Water
  • Snails / drug effects*
  • Snails / metabolism
  • Soil / analysis*
  • Soil Pollutants / analysis*
  • Soil Pollutants / toxicity
  • Solubility
  • Toxicity Tests
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis


  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Carbon
  • Copper