Smoking patterns within a primary care sample of resettled Bosnian refugees

J Immigr Minor Health. 2008 Oct;10(5):407-14. doi: 10.1007/s10903-007-9102-6.


The interconnections among smoking status, severity of nicotine related physical dependence (NRPD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related physiological arousal and subjective health were explored within a sample of 66 resettled Bosnian refugees seeking primary healthcare services. Fifty-nine percent (n = 39/66) of the participants reported that they were current smokers and 44% (n = 29/66) indicated that they had smoked prior to the war. Both pre-war smoking and PTSD arousal independently predicted current smoking. In addition, total PTSD arousal and individual symptoms of sleep difficulties, irritability, concentration, and hypervigilance were significantly and positively associated with NRPD. Severity of PTSD arousal and age uniquely predicted NRPD. While poorer subjective health was significantly associated with positive current smoking status, neither poorer subjective health nor severity of PTSD arousal was significantly associated with interest in quitting/reducing smoking. Findings were discussed within the context of culture and stressor-related issues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude to Health / ethnology*
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina / ethnology
  • Culture
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Midwestern United States / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Primary Health Care / statistics & numerical data*
  • Refugees / psychology*
  • Refugees / statistics & numerical data
  • Self Disclosure
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / complications
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / ethnology*
  • Urban Health
  • Warfare