Immunoreactivity and amino acid content of fermented soybean products

J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jan 9;56(1):99-105. doi: 10.1021/jf072177j. Epub 2007 Dec 12.


Food allergy has become a public health problem that continues to challenge both the public and the food industry. The objective of this research was the detection and quantification of the major human allergenic soy proteins and to study the reduction in immunoreactivity and improvement of amino acid content after fermentation of soybean flour. Fermentation was carried out in the solid state of cracked seeds inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, and Bacillus subtilis and in the liquid state of milled soybean flours fermented naturally by microorganisms present only in the seeds or by inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum. ELISA and Western blot were used to quantify IgE antibody response, and HPLC was used to identify and quantify total amino acids. L. plantarum fermented soy flour showed the highest reduction in IgE immunoreactivity (96-99%) depending upon the sensitivity of the plasma used. Among the solid fermented products, the lowest reduction in immunoreactivity was obtained when mold strains, R. oryzae and A. oryzae, were used (66 and 68%, respectively, for human plasma 97.5 kUA/L). Among the solid fermented products, those inoculated with B. subtilis yielded a 81 and 86% reduction in immunoreactivity against both human plasma 97.5 IgE kUA/L and human pooled plasma samples, respectively. When soybean was subjected to liquid fermentation, most of the total amino acids increased significantly ( p < or = 0.05). In solid fermentation with R. oryzae, only Ala and Thr content improved. Fermentation can decrease soy immunoreactivity, and there is potential of developing nutritious hypoallergenic soy products.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Allergens / analysis
  • Amino Acids / analysis*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Fermentation*
  • Humans
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Soybean Proteins / analysis
  • Soybean Proteins / immunology
  • Soybeans / chemistry*
  • Soybeans / immunology*


  • Allergens
  • Amino Acids
  • Soybean Proteins