Gender and the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2007 Dec;4(8):686-91. doi: 10.1513/pats.200706-081SD.


Following in the footsteps of cardiovascular researchers and clinicians, the pulmonary scientific community is beginning to explore how gender may impact the diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Investigators and clinicians in this field are tackling the complex questions surrounding how differences in male/female biology may interact with gender differences in environmental, societal, cultural, and behavioral determinants of health to influence outcomes in COPD. In this article, issues such as gender differences in symptoms, gender diagnostic bias, differential impact of therapies, including smoking cessation and pharmacologic management, as well as the impact of these issues on COPD surveillance, are discussed. Current knowledge from the literature coupled with discussions from a 1-day symposium on gender and COPD diagnosis, management, and surveillance are detailed, including recommendations on where future research endeavors may be targeted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials as Topic / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Population Surveillance
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnosis*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / therapy*
  • Respiratory Therapy
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking Cessation


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Bronchodilator Agents