Conventional treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has apparently reached a plateau of effectiveness in improving the survival of the patients. For that reason the search for new therapeutic strategies in this type of tumor is justified. 1E10 is an anti-idiotype murine monoclonal antibody (Ab2 MAb) specific to P3 Ab1 MAb, which reacts with NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides and with antigens expressed in some tumors, including those from the lung. We report the treatment with aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 MAb of 34 stage IIIb and 37 stage IV NSCLC patients. These patients were treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine, after received standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in a compassionate-use basis study. Patients received five bi-weekly injections of 1 mg of 1E10/Alum, other 10 doses at 28-day intervals and later the patients who maintained a good performance status continued to be immunized at this same time interval. No evidence of unexpected or serious adverse effects was reported. The median survival time of the 56 patients who entered the study with partial response or disease stabilization and with a PS 1 after the first line of chemo/radiotherapy, was 11.50 months from starting vaccination. In contrast, the median survival time calculated for patients who started vaccination with progressive disease and/or a PS2 was 6.50 months.