Profiling of UV-induced ATM/ATR signaling pathways

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Dec 11;104(50):19855-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0707579104. Epub 2007 Dec 6.

Abstract

To ensure survival in the face of genomic insult, cells have evolved complex mechanisms to respond to DNA damage, termed the DNA damage checkpoint. The serine/threonine kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activate checkpoint signaling by phosphorylating substrate proteins at SQ/TQ motifs. Although some ATM/ATR substrates (Chk1, p53) have been identified, the lack of a more complete list of substrates limits current understanding of checkpoint pathways. Here, we use immunoaffinity phosphopeptide isolation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify 570 sites phosphorylated in UV-damaged cells, 498 of which are previously undescribed. Semiquantitative analysis yielded 24 known and 192 previously uncharacterized sites differentially phosphorylated upon UV damage, some of which were confirmed by SILAC, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting. ATR-specific phosphorylation was investigated by using a Seckel syndrome (ATR mutant) cell line. Together, these results provide a rich resource for further deciphering ATM/ATR signaling and the pathways mediating the DNA damage response.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs / genetics
  • Amino Acid Motifs / physiology
  • Amino Acid Motifs / radiation effects
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / immunology
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DNA Damage / physiology
  • DNA Damage / radiation effects
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Phosphopeptides / immunology
  • Phosphopeptides / isolation & purification
  • Phosphopeptides / physiology
  • Phosphorylation / radiation effects
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / deficiency
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / immunology
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / radiation effects*
  • Substrate Specificity / genetics
  • Substrate Specificity / radiation effects
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / immunology
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology*
  • Ultraviolet Rays*

Substances

  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Phosphopeptides
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • ATM protein, human
  • ATR protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases