Prospective biomedical applications of hollow polyelectrolyte microcapsules, for example, as drug delivery systems, require surface modifications that help to escape clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). Layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules that were alternatingly composed of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) were coated with adlayers of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted poly-L-lysine (PLL-g-PEG) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA-g-PEG). Their effects on MPS recognition were studied in primary cell cultures of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and macrophages. PGA-g-PEG coatings had no significant effect on cellular recognition, which may be explained by insufficient PEG density of the adlayer. Contrary, PLL-g-PEG effectively blocked phagocytosis of coated microcapsules. In addition, PLL-g-PEG coatings showed efficient adlayer stability for at least 3 weeks, and PAH/PSS microcapsules did not impair phagocyte viability. Our results demonstrate that layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolyte microcapsules coated with a PEG-grafted polyelectrolyte, PLL-g-PEG, represent a promising platform for a drug delivery system that escapes fast clearance by the MPS.