Neuropsychology and clinical neuroscience of persistent post-concussive syndrome

J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2008 Jan;14(1):1-22. doi: 10.1017/S135561770808017X.


On the mild end of the acquired brain injury spectrum, the terms concussion and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been used interchangeably, where persistent post-concussive syndrome (PPCS) has been a label given when symptoms persist for more than three months post-concussion. Whereas a brief history of concussion research is overviewed, the focus of this review is on the current status of PPCS as a clinical entity from the perspective of recent advances in the biomechanical modeling of concussion in human and animal studies, particularly directed at a better understanding of the neuropathology associated with concussion. These studies implicate common regions of injury, including the upper brainstem, base of the frontal lobe, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, medial temporal lobe, fornix, and corpus callosum. Limitations of current neuropsychological techniques for the clinical assessment of memory and executive function are explored and recommendations for improved research designs offered, that may enhance the study of long-term neuropsychological sequelae of concussion.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Injuries
  • Diagnostic Imaging
  • Disease Progression
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Neuropsychology*
  • Neurosciences*
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / history
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / pathology
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome / psychology*
  • Severity of Illness Index