The principles of freeze-drying

Methods Mol Biol. 2007;368:15-38. doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-362-2_2.


This chapter provides an up-to-date overview of freeze-drying (lyophilization) with particulars relevance to stabilizing live cells or viruses for industrial applications as vaccines or seed culture. The chapter discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, validation, and the need to satisfy pharmaceutical regulatory requirements necessary for the commercial exploitation of freeze-dried products.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Freeze Drying* / methods
  • Freeze Drying* / standards
  • Vaccines*
  • Viruses*


  • Vaccines