We describe in this paper the phenotype-genotype analysis of a Brazilian cohort of patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). Patient 1 presented with an urticarial rash and recurrent fever exacerbated by cold weather, arthritis, and anterior uveitis, thus, receiving a clinical diagnosis of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. CIAS1 sequencing identified the T436I mutation, previously associated to a clinical phenotype of chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular/neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease. Patient 2 developed a papular exanthema with daily fever shortly after birth, frontal bossing, patellae enlargement, and cognitive and motor impairments. Sequencing identified the exceedingly rare G755R CIAS1 mutation in exon 4. Patient 3 developed skin rash and articular symptoms 6 h after birth, followed by aseptic meningitis. He was found to have the novel C148Y missense mutation in CIAS1. This report expands the spectrum of CIAS1 mutations associated to clinical disease, suggests that the same mutation can be associated with different clinical syndromes, and supports the evidence that CAPS patients should always be screened for mutations outside exon 3.