Continuous insulin infusion (CSII) or modern type of multiple daily injections (MDI) in diabetic children and adolescents a critical review on a controversial issue

Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Dec;5(2):666-78.


Objective: There is a common opinion that CSII is superior to MDI. CSII offers the most physiological insulin substitution.

Method: Review of recent publications (Cochrane criteria), on modern multiple daily injections (MDI) based on insulin analogues, modern self-control and education.

Results: There is a lack of randomised controlled studies comparing CSII with modern MDI in children and adolescents. In some studies CSII seems to give a slight decrease of HbA1c, a slightly better quality of life, perhaps less hypoglycemia. However, serious hypoglycemia, sometimes fatal, occurs, DKA seems to increase, weight gain and local infections at injection sites may occur and CSII is more expensive than MDI.

Conclusion: CSII is a useful tool. It is reasonable to use it when there are appropriate indications. CSII does not solve all problems but has to be combined with other important parts of diabetes treatment.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Mass Index
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetic Ketoacidosis / epidemiology
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia / epidemiology
  • Injections / methods
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / analogs & derivatives
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Quality of Life
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Insulin