Multidrug resistance is a major obstacle to cancer treatment and leads to poor prognosis for the patient. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) transports a wide range of therapeutic agents as well as diverse physiological substrates and may play a role in the development of drug resistance in several cancers including those of the lung, breast and prostate, as well as childhood neuroblastoma. The majority of patients with neuroblastoma present with widely disseminated disease at diagnosis and despite intensive treatment, the prognosis for such patients is dismal. There is increasing evidence that MRP1 is a MYCN target gene involved in the development of multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma. Given the importance of MRP1 overexpression in neuroblastoma, MRP1 inhibition may be a clinically relevant approach to improving patient outcome in this disease.