We have studied the plasma membrane protein phenotype of human culture-amplified and native bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs). We have found, using microarrays and flow cytometry, that cultured cells express specifically 113 transcripts and 17 proteins that were not detected in hematopoietic cells. These antigens define a lineage-homogenous cell population of mesenchymal cells, clearly distinct from the hematopoietic lineages, and distinguishable from other cultured skeletal mesenchymal cells (periosteal cells and synovial fibroblasts). Among the specific membrane proteins present on cultured MSCs, 9 allowed the isolation from BM mononuclear cells of a minute population of native MSCs. The enrichment in colony-forming units-fibroblasts was low for CD49b, CD90, and CD105, but high for CD73, CD130, CD146, CD200, and integrin alphaV/beta5. In addition, the expression of CD73, CD146, and CD200 was down-regulated in differentiated cells. The new marker CD200, because of its specificity and immunomodulatory properties, deserves further in-depth studies.