Mass spectral comparison of the neuropeptide complement of the stomatogastric ganglion and brain in the adult and embryonic lobster, Homarus americanus

J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(3):690-702. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2007.05154.x. Epub 2007 Dec 6.


Neuropeptides in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) and the brain of adult and late embryonic Homarus americanus were compared using a multi-faceted mass spectral strategy. Overall, 29 neuropeptides from 10 families were identified in the brain and/or the STG of the lobster. Many of these neuropeptides are reported for the first time in the embryonic lobster. Neuropeptide extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry enabled confident identification of 24 previously characterized peptides in the adult brain and 13 peptides in the embryonic brain. Two novel peptides (QDLDHVFLRFa and GPPSLRLRFa) were de novo sequenced. In addition, a comparison of adult to embryonic brains revealed the presence of an incompletely processed form of Cancer borealis tachykinin-related peptide 1a (CabTRP 1a, APSGFLGMRG) only in the embryonic brain. A comparison of adult to embryonic STGs revealed that QDLDHVFLRFa was present in the embryonic STG but absent in the adult STG, and CabTRP 1a exhibited the opposite trend. Relative quantification of neuropeptides in the STG revealed that three orcokinin family peptides (NFDEIDRSGFGF, NFDEIDRSGFGFV, and NFDEIDRSGFGFN), a B-type allatostatin (STNWSSLRSAWa), and an orcomyotropin-related peptide (FDAFTTGFGHS) exhibited higher signal intensities in the adult relative to the embryonic STG. RFamide (Arg-Phe-amide) family peptide (DTSTPALRLRFa), [Val(1)]SIFamide (VYRKPPFNGSIFa), and orcokinin-related peptide (VYGPRDIANLY) were more intense in the embryonic STG spectra than in the adult STG spectra. Collectively, this study expands our current knowledge of the H. americanus neuropeptidome and highlights some intriguing expression differences that occur during development.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Sequence / physiology
  • Animals
  • Brain / cytology
  • Brain / embryology
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / innervation
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / cytology
  • Ganglia, Invertebrate / metabolism*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / innervation
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Nephropidae / cytology
  • Nephropidae / embryology
  • Nephropidae / metabolism*
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / analysis
  • Neuropeptides / chemistry
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Phylogeny


  • Neuropeptides
  • phenylalanyl-aspartyl-alanyl-phenylalanyl-threonyl-threonyl-glycyl-phenylalanylamide
  • orcokinin