The future of open- and closed-loop insulin delivery systems

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;60(1):1-13. doi: 10.1211/jpp.60.1.0001.


We have analysed several aspects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, including the glucose metabolic system, diabetes complications, and previous and ongoing research aimed at controlling glucose in diabetic patients. An expert review of various models and control algorithms developed for the glucose homeostasis system is presented, along with an analysis of research towards the development of a polymeric insulin infusion system. Recommendations for future directions in creating a true closed-loop glucose control system are presented, including the development of multivariable models and control systems to more accurately describe and control the multi-metabolite, multi-hormonal system, as well as in-vivo assessments of implicit closed-loop control systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Forecasting*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / pharmacokinetics
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / standards
  • Insulin Infusion Systems / trends*
  • Models, Biological


  • Insulin