Candidates for liver transplantation (OLT) may be found to have an incidental extrahepatic tumor, which is amenable to resection, and may be associated with variable long-term survival. Issues to be considered include: (1) Whether it is possible to define a tumor stage and survival expectancy, which makes the patient an acceptable transplant candidate; (2) Whether cancer surgery should be preformed prior, during, or after OLT; (3) Whether the recipient be placed on immunosuppression that is tailored to address concern related to cancer recurrence. These issues are illustrated in the context of OLT and nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Two patients underwent a simultaneous OLT and curative radical nephrectomy for stage 1 RCC that was incidentally discovered during OLT evaluation, one of whom received a simultaneous kidney transplant. At 51 and 14 months postoperatively, the patients are alive and healthy, with no tumor recurrence. In selected extrahepatic malignancies, simultaneous curative resection and OLT may provide the optimal outcome. This is justifiable when curative cancer-related life expectancy exceeds OLT-expected graft and patient survival. Concomitant transplantation and cancer surgery provides an acceptable cancer-free survival, avoiding the high morbidity observed when cancer resection is done in the presence of decompensated liver disease.